"A Mockery in the Name of a Barrier": Literacy Test Debates in the Reconstruction Era Congress, 1864-1869


  • Kirk Branch Montana State University




literacy test, Reconstruction, race, Fifteenth Amendment, suffrage


Between 1864 and 1869, the United States Congress debated an educational requirement for voter registration–a literacy test–as a means of dealing with the millions of new American citizens created by emancipation. These debates offer a critical early perspective on the development of literacy as a racial marker serving official racist agendas. Rhetoric supporting a test relied on the premise that a more literate and educated electorate is an obvious and uncontestable cultural good, necessary for the continued health and indeed survival of the nation. When the test was first discussed, its primary advantage was that it offered a way to talk about the inferiority of the newly emancipated Southerners without resorting to racial explanations; thus, freed slaves were dangerous not because they were black but because they were ignorant and uneducated. The 1869 debates about the Fifteenth Amendment, however, reveal a growing awareness of literacy’s rhetorical utility and the ways a belief in its inherent “goodness” might be used for ends divorced from the measurement or promotion of literacy: Radical Republicans proposed including a ban on such requirements in the language of the Fifteenth Amendment, certain that Southern whites would use it as a tool of disfranchisement.  These debates, in the context of the test’s subsequent history as a tool of racist exclusion, demonstrate the rhetorical power and pliability of the idea of literacy within official policy.

Author Biography

Kirk Branch, Montana State University

Kirk Branch is a Professor of English at Montana State University, where he directs the Yellowstone Writing Project. He taught for one year as a Fulbright Scholar at Univertas Kristen Satya Wacana in Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia in 2010-11, and has facilitated writing workshops for secondary and college English language teachers in Nepal and Indonesia. His interest in literacy studies began as an adult literacy teacher at the Goodwill Community Learning Center in Seattle. He is currently working on a book about the history of the literacy test as a voting requirement.




How to Cite

Branch, K. (2015). "A Mockery in the Name of a Barrier": Literacy Test Debates in the Reconstruction Era Congress, 1864-1869. Literacy in Composition Studies, 3(2), 44–65. https://doi.org/10.21623/